This is not the first time that major cities have been abandonded (i.e., Ephesus, Babylon, Miletus, Ani etc.) Others have not been abandoned, but have lost their relative importance as a global economic/political centers (i.e., Istanbul (Constantinopolis), Vienna, Rome, St. Petersburg, etc.) While, some have adapted to economic/political changes (i.e., London, New York, Paris, etc.) All these cities have been associated with global economic and political shifts or globalization. However, in some cases, ther demise was hastened by losing their raison d'être as in the silting of harbors as in Ephesus and Miletus. However, globalization and its
effect on the rise/decline of cities did not arise in the 20th century. It has been here for thousand of years.